Health & Wellness

The Top-Rated Mushroom Supplements of 2020

Peter Gold
Health Editor

Peter is a practitioner of naturopathic medicine, applying his craft in the Pacific Northwest. His passion is preventive care and self-healing. His philosophy is healthy habits help people live their lives to the fullest.

How We Found the Best Mushroom Supplements

One of the fastest rising supplement categories today is medicinal mushrooms. Traditional Chinese Medicine has used mushrooms for thousands of years to treat various ailments, detoxify the body, and provide overall well-being and longevity.1 Modern science has recently unraveled the mystery behind how these fungi work to help support memory, focus, immune function, energy, and even reduce anxiety and inflammation.

This new popularity has led to hundreds of mushroom supplements flooding the marketplace. While these supplements all promise to deliver benefits, the reality is that too many fall short. Some of the most popular brands use ineffective forms or insufficient levels of mushrooms. Others use mushrooms that do not have enough scientific evidence to support their claims. To make matters worse, we found that some popular mushroom supplements don’t even contain actual mushrooms.

How To Pick A Good Mushroom Supplement
& Avoid The Junk

With so many options, many of us might still be unclear about what to look for in a quality medicinal mushroom supplement. To help cut through the clutter, we have compiled months of research about the key mushrooms that have been shown in studies to offer real benefits.

This short guide will help you know what to look for and what to avoid so you can make an informed decision regarding your mushroom supplements needs. We will also list out the top 5 mushroom supplements sold today.

Let’s take a moment to understand precisely how mushrooms work and why it’s essential to add it to your daily routine.

Mushroom Supplements: What Are They All About?

Natural mushrooms are loaded with polysaccharides, antioxidants, amino acids, polyphenols, and digestive enzymes. Most of the scientific research related to mushrooms is focused on a specific type of soluble fiber found in the fungi cell walls called beta-glucans (β-glucan). Researchers have discovered that beta-glucans offer a wide range of health benefits from support for the immune system, protection against brain degeneration, and even reduced stress.2-5

A Good Mushroom Supplement Can:

Improve Memory and Focus6-8

Protect Against Age-Related Cognitive Decline9

Improve Immune System Response10

Fight Inflammation11

Manage Blood Sugar12

Repair Damaged Nerve Cells13

Boost Energy, Stamina, and Physical Performance14

Fight Fatigue, Reduce Irritability and Anxiety15

4 Things To AVOID
When Buying A Mushroom Supplement

1. MYCELIUM

Mushroom supplement manufacturers use one of two different forms of mushrooms in their formula. The first type is the actual mushroom cap, and stem called the fruiting body. The second type is mycelium, and you should generally avoid it. If you think about a flower, mycelium is the root system, and the fruiting bodies are the actual flower part and stem, in this case, the mushroom caps and stems.

Manufacturers who use mycelium will grow these roots on top of a grain substrate, mostly rice or oats. Once mycelium roots grow, the roots and substrate become intertwined and are impossible to separate. Formulas containing mycelium consist of about half roots and half filler in rice or oats. Some manufacturers chose to use mycelium because they can mass produce it as it only takes one week to mature.

Compare that to fruiting bodies, a more expensive growing process that takes anywhere from two months to several years. We prefer the fruiting bodies as they are the pure form of mushrooms with no filler or by-products. If you are looking for an actual “mushroom” supplement that does not have unwanted fillers, avoid formulas that
use mycelium.

2. POWDERS

Mushrooms can come in either powder or extract form. A mushroom powder means that the mushroom was dried and then ground into a fine powder. Manufacturers use powders since they are the cheapest way to produce a supplement, but it also provides the consumer with the least health benefits. The essential beta-glucans need to be extracted from the cell walls of a mushroom. These cells are made of an indigestible fiber called chitin. The human body can’t easily absorb chitin, and so the beta-glucans end up passing through as waste. Much like your hard-earned money gets wasted when choosing a mushroom supplement made of powders and not extracts.

3. RELYING ON AMAZON REVIEWS

Research showed that in March 2019, there were 1.8 million new unverified reviews, with an average of 99.6% of them being 5-star reviews.16 Most of these reviews are from people paid to write them. These fake reviews inflate the number and overall star rating of a product. When deciding on a product that can impact your health, don’t rely on Amazon reviews as they can be extremely misleading.

4. INSUFFICIENT RETURN POLICY

A reputable medicinal mushroom supplement brand will demonstrate they have faith in their product by offering a 100% money-back guarantee policy. Some try to complicate their refund policies by placing limitations on what kind of returns they will take. Avoid any brand that does not have at minimum a no questions asked 90-day money-back guarantee.

Which Mushrooms are Best?

When it comes to medicinal mushrooms, not all are created equal. Of the over 10,000 different mushroom varieties, only a handful have substantial research supporting health benefits. Below are the ones we feel can give you real results.

LION’S MANE

Lion’s mane is a large, white mushroom, that as it grows, has a shaggy appearance that resembles a lion’s mane. Studies have demonstrated that lion’s mane helps increase Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) levels, which protects us against degenerative brain diseases that contribute to memory loss.17 While lion’s mane is best known for improving memory and concentration, studies show it can reduce irritability and anxiety.18,19 Several studies have also indicated that lion’s mane has immune-boosting benefits. Harmful pathogens enter the body through the mouth or nose as we breathe in. Lion’s mane can bolster our defenses by helping to stimulate gut bacteria to trigger the immune system.20,21

CHAGA

Chaga has been used for centuries throughout the world to help boost immunity. White blood cells are the immune systems first line of defense. Studies have shown that the Chaga mushroom regulates a protein known as cytokines, which stimulates white blood cells’ production.22 This antioxidant-rich mushroom contains high amounts of zinc, which help the immune system combat bacteria and viruses.23

MAITAKE

Maitake has long been hailed in Asia as a mushroom with vast healing properties. The Japanese love this mushroom so much that upon discovering it, they named it Maitake, which means “dancing mushroom” as they were thrilled with its health benefits. Maitake is considered a type of adaptogen. It helps the body achieve optimal balance by suppressing physical and mental stress that you may experience.24 Studies show it can be of benefit to those that suffer from chronic fatigue syndrome.25 Recent studies have shown that Maitake can help activate cells that stimulate the immune system’s natural killer cells and T cells.26,27

REISHI

In a world filled with stress and anxiety, Reishi has become one of the most popular medicinal mushrooms to help support a state of calmness. Reishi contains a potent amount of the active compound triterpene, shown in studies to help reduce stress, improve sleep, boost mood, and mental focus.28-30 The triterpene found in Reishi has also been shown in studies to enhance immune system response by helping increase white blood cells’ activity in the form of natural killer cells that fight off infections.31-33

SHIITAKE

Shiitake mushrooms, primarily grown in Japan, are loved worldwide for their superb taste and coveted for thousands of years by those looking to boost longevity and reduce inflammation. What makes shiitake mushrooms so effective is that they are a great source of B vitamins and have antiviral and antibacterial properties.34-36 If you, like many of us, put on a couple of extra pounds during quarantine, you might be pleased to hear that a study published in the Journal of Obesity concluded that shiitake could help reduce and prevent body weight gain and the build-up of fat.37 Even more, a recent study published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition found that shiitake can help boost immune function, improve cell function, gut immunity, and reduce inflammation.38

Top 3 Criteria For A Quality Medicinal Mushroom Supplement

We spent months researching mushroom supplements and gathering user feedback. There are specific aspects that differentiate
high-quality mushroom supplements from generic ones. Below are the three most essential criteria to consider before deciding which mushroom brand is best for your needs.

2020’s Top Medicinal Mushroom Supplements

Our review encompassed 82 different mushroom supplements, putting each through our rigorous Review Scout assessment process. To determine 2020’s Top 5 Medicinal Mushroom Supplements, we looked for predicted effectiveness, safety, return policy, and overall customer satisfaction.

#1 Stonehenge Health Dynamic Mushrooms

A+

Overall Grade

#1 Stonehenge Health Dynamic Mushrooms

  • OVERALL RATING 9.7/10
  • Predicted Effectiveness 9.7/10
  • Ingredient Quality 9.8/10
  • Value 9.5/10
  • Return Policy 9.8/10
  • User Rating 9.7/10
PROS
  • Lion’s Mane, Chaga, Maitake, Reishi, & Shiitake
  • 100% Fruiting Bodies & 1,400 mg Formula
  • Extracts with a Potent 4:1 Concentration
  • Endorsed by a Doctor
  • Vegetarian Capsules, Non-GMO, Gluten, Soy and Dairy Free
  • Verified 90-day 100% money-back return policy
CONS
  • Often out of stock due to high demand
Why We Chose It

Stonehenge Health’s Dynamic Mushrooms is Review Scout’s top choice. This supplement blends all five essential mushroom varieties, Lion’s Mane, Chaga, Maitake, Reishi, and Shiitake, into one formula.

Dynamic Mushrooms uses 100% extracts with a potent 4:1 concentration, delivering a daily dose of 1,400 mg, the equivalent of approximately 5,600 mg of mushroom powder. Each mushroom in this formula is derived from a fruiting body that studies show have superior amounts of beta-glucans compared to mycelium. We were happy to see that their Lion’s Mane mushroom 4:1 extract has a dosage of 1,000 mg, which exceeds our minimum recommended dosage of 750 mg. With the correct mushrooms at the proper dosages, Dynamic Mushrooms has what it takes to help support cognitive performance, a robust immune system, and other essential health benefits.

We were able to verify that Stonehenge Health’s formula does not contain any fillers such as rice or oats commonly found in brands that use mycelium. It was also great to see that Dynamic Mushrooms is non-GMO and uses vegetarian capsules. Stonehenge Health backs its products with a no-questions-asked, 90-day money-back guarantee and is one of the few brands to be endorsed by a board-certified doctor. We also like that they offer customers discounts on bundles. Click on the link below to see their current specials.

*Results are based on user-generated experiences with these products, and individual results may vary. Please refer to the manufacturer’s product website for detailed information.

#2 Four Sigmatic Mushroom Blend Defend

A-

Overall Grade

#2 Four Sigmatic Mushroom Blend Defend

  • OVERALL RATING 8.9/10
  • Predicted Effectiveness 8.1/10
  • Ingredient Quality 9.2/10
  • Value 8.8/10
  • Return Policy 9.7/10
  • User Rating 8.6/10
PROS
  • 10 Mushroom Blend
  • 100% Fruiting Bodies with Extracts
  • Vegan and Gluten-Free
  • 90-day return policy
CONS
  • No extract concentration listed
  • Insufficient amount of Lion’s Mane mushroom
  • Requires to be mixed with water
  • User complaints related to taste and questionable servings per container
Why We Chose It

Four Sigmatic Mushroom Blend Defend is a popular product that contains ten different mushrooms from fruiting bodies. A big plus for us was that this formula uses extracts, but we would have preferred to see them list the extracts’ concentration to understand the potency better.

While Four Sigmatic includes all five of our top mushrooms, when it comes to Lion’s Mane, one of the essential mushrooms for brain and immune health, they fell short by only offering a 150 mg dose. This dosage is significantly lower than our minimum recommended 750 mg and far lower than the number one ranked brand on our list, which has 1,000 mg of Lion’s Mane in a 4:1 extract.

This product comes in a powder form, which could be a great fit for those who enjoy mixing a daily concoction. We tend to prefer the capsule form of supplements as they are more convenient to take and help ensure that you stay on your daily regimen for optimal results. A common complaint amongst users is that, even when stored in the container provided, the powder quickly forms into a dense brick, making it unusable. Users have also reported the product having an undesirable musky taste.

It was good to see that Four Sigmatic offers a 90-day money-back guarantee. A growing topic amongst Four Sigmatic users is related to the 30 servings the product packaging claims. Some users have expressed frustration stating they were only able to get 15 servings per package. A lower number of doses could indicate that what might seem like a product with a relatively low purchase price, is in actuality, quite expensive.

*Results are based on user-generated experiences with these products, and individual results may vary. Please refer to the manufacturer’s product website for detailed information.

#3 Real Mushrooms 5 Defenders

B-

Overall Grade

#3 Real Mushrooms 5 Defenders

  • OVERALL RATING 8.1/10
  • Predicted Effectiveness 8.6/10
  • Ingredient Quality 8.7/10
  • Value 7.5/10
  • Return Policy 7/10
  • User Rating 8.5/10
PROS
  • Contains four out of our top 5 mushrooms
  • 100% Fruiting Bodies with Extracts
  • 1,000 mg formula
  • Vegetarian Capsules, Non-GMO, and Gluten-Free
CONS
  • Does not Contain Lion’s Mane
  • Hides amount of each mushroom in the formula
  • No extract concentration listed
  • 30-Day return policy limited to unopened bottles
Why We Chose It

Real Mushrooms 5 Defenders contain five different mushroom varieties intended to help support an improved immune system and overall well-being. We liked that this formula includes four of our top five recommended mushrooms. However, the formula is lacking our top-ranking mushroom, Lion’s Mane. We see many manufacturers leave out Lion’s Mane as it is an expensive ingredient, and those companies may be more focused on their profit margins. Our biggest concern with Real Mushrooms is that they use a proprietary blend to hide the amount per serving for each mushroom. We have no way of knowing if the 1,000 mg serving size is 900 mg Chaga and 20 mg of each other mushroom. The lack of transparency is concerning. Real Mushroom backs their product with a minimal 30-day refund period, which only applies to unopened bottles. This formula uses a vegetarian capsule and is non-GMO.

*Results are based on user-generated experiences with these products, and individual results may vary. Please refer to the manufacturer’s product website for detailed information.

#4 Genius Mushrooms

C+

Overall Grade

#4 Genius Mushrooms

  • OVERALL RATING 7.8/10
  • Predicted Effectiveness 7.5/10
  • Ingredient Quality 6.9/10
  • Value 7.5/10
  • Return Policy 8.3/10
  • User Rating 8.7/10
PROS
  • Contains two of our top 5 mushrooms
  • Vegetarian Capsules, Organic, Non-GMO, & Gluten-Free
CONS
  • Mycelium and not from Fruiting Bodies
  • Powder form and not extracts
  • Consumer complaints of nausea
  • Conflicting return policies
Why We Chose It

Genius Mushroom by The Genius Brand is a popular and low-priced product that contains three different mushrooms. At first glance, this product might seem like a tremendous bargain, but a closer look at the ingredients demonstrates why all that glitters is not gold. Genius Mushroom uses mushrooms in powder form, not extracts, and grown on mycelium, not fruiting bodies.41 These aspects make it cheaper to produce but considerably less effective. Studies have shown that mushrooms grown on a mycelium base have about half the beta-glucans, the compound found to deliver health benefits, compared to mushrooms from fruiting bodies. It was good to see that this product uses organic mushrooms and vegetarian capsules. Some consumers have reported mixed reviews, and others had gastrointestinal discomfort from using the product. The return policy for Genius Mushroom is unclear as their website product page indicates a 30-day return policy, but elsewhere on the site indicates 90-days.

*Results are based on user-generated experiences with these products, and individual results may vary. Please refer to the manufacturer’s product website for detailed information.

#5 Host Defense MyCommunity®

C

Overall Grade

#5 Host Defense MyCommunity®

  • OVERALL RATING 7.6/10
  • Predicted Effectiveness 6.9/10
  • Ingredient Quality 6.7/10
  • Value 6.6/10
  • Return Policy 9.2/10
  • User Rating 8.4/10
PROS
  • 17 Mushroom Blend
  • Limited 90-day return policy
  • Certified Organic, Non-GMO, & Gluten-Free
CONS
  • Powder from raw mycelium
  • Low dosage per mushroom
  • Contains Grain Filler
  • Consumer complaints of allergic reactions
  • Does not use vegetarian capsules
Why We Chose It

Host Defense is a long-standing medicinal mushroom brand that produces supplements with organically grown mycelium. Their MyCommunity® formula contains seventeen different mushroom varieties, with a low dosage per mushroom. While the Host Defense claims their formula contains both mycelium and fruiting body mushrooms, the reality is that only one of the seventeen mushrooms are from a fruiting body, leaving the remaining 16 grown on a mycelium on grain biomass. The grain filler in this formula is brown rice. Of the total 1,050 mg per serving, one could assume that at least 50% of the product is brown rice filler as there is no way to remove the mycelium from the substrate, leaving you with only about 500 mg of mycelium. As we have noted, studies have shown that mycelium has nearly half the beta-glucans, the compound found to deliver health benefits, compared to mushrooms from fruiting bodies. This product does not contain any extracts. Some users have reported allergic reactions to the product, which may be related to its grain content.

*Results are based on user-generated experiences with these products, and individual results may vary. Please refer to the manufacturer’s product website for detailed information.

Citations
  1. Aung, Steven Kh. 2005. “The Clinical Use Of Mushrooms From A Traditional Chinese Medical Perspective”. International Journal Of Medicinal Mushrooms, 375-376. doi:10.1615/intjmedmushrooms.v7.i3.290
  2. D, Akramiene, Kondrotas A, Didziapetriene J, and Kevelaitis E. 2007. “Effects Of Beta-glucans On The Immune System”. Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania) 43 (8). https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17895634/.
  3. Daou, Cheickna, and Hui Zhang. 2012. “Oat Beta-glucans: Its Role In Health Promotion And Prevention Of Diseases”. Comprehensive Reviews In Food Science And Food Safety 11 (4): 355-365. doi:10.1111/j.1541-4337.2012.00189.x.
  4. HONG, HEEOK, CHANG-JU KIM, JAE-DEUNG KIM, and JIN-HEE SEO. 2014. “Β-Glucan Reduces Exercise-Induced Stress Through Downregulation Of C-Fos And C-Jun Expression In The Brains Of Exhausted Rats”. Molecular Medicine Reports 9 (5): 1660-1666. doi:10.3892/mmr.2014.2005.
  5. Sabaratnam, Vikineswary, Wong Kah-Hui, Murali Naidu, and Pamela Rosie David. 2013. “Neuronal Health – Can Culinary And Medicinal Mushrooms Help?”. Journal Of Traditional And Complementary Medicine 3 (1): 62-68. doi:10.4103/2225-4110.106549.
  6. Sabaratnam, Vikineswary, Wong Kah-Hui, Murali Naidu, and Pamela Rosie David. 2013. “Neuronal Health – Can Culinary And Medicinal Mushrooms Help?”. Journal Of Traditional And Complementary Medicine 3 (1): 62-68. doi:10.4103/2225-4110.106549.
  7. Lai, Puei-Lene, Murali Naidu, Vikineswary Sabaratnam, Kah-Hui Wong, Rosie Pamela David, Umah Rani Kuppusamy, Noorlidah Abdullah, and Sri Nurestri A. Malek. 2013. “Neurotrophic Properties Of The Lion’s Mane Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium Erinaceus (Higher Basidiomycetes) From Malaysia”. International Journal Of Medicinal Mushrooms 15 (6): 539-554. Begell House. doi:10.1615/intjmedmushr.v15.i6.30.
  8. Mori, K. et al. (2011) “Effects of Hericium erinaceus on amyloid β(25-35) peptide-induced learning and memory deficits in mice”, Biomedical Research, 32(1), pp. 67-72. doi: 10.2220/biomedres.32.67.
  9. Lai, P. et al. (2013) “Neurotrophic Properties of the Lion’s Mane Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Higher Basidiomycetes) from Malaysia”, International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 15(6), pp. 539-554. doi: 10.1615/intjmedmushr.v15.i6.30.
  10. D, A. et al. (2007) “Effects of Beta-glucans on the Immune System”, Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania), 43(8), p. Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17895634/#:~:text=beta%2DGlucans%20also%20show%20anticarcinogenic,growth%20in%20promotion%20stage%20too. (Accessed: 30 June 2020).
  11. Elsayed, E. et al. (2014) “Mushrooms: A Potential Natural Source of Anti-Inflammatory Compounds for Medical Applications”, Mediators of Inflammation, 2014, pp. 1-15. doi: 10.1155/2014/805841.
  12. Vitak, T. et al. (2017) “Effect of medicinal mushrooms on blood cells under conditions of diabetes mellitus”, World Journal of Diabetes, 8(5), p. 187. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v8.i5.187.
  13. Wong, K. et al. (2011) “Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Following Crush Injury to Rat Peroneal Nerve by Aqueous Extract of Medicinal MushroomHericium erinaceus(Bull.: Fr) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae)”, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011, pp. 1-10. doi: 10.1093/ecam/neq062.
  14. Geng, P. et al. (2017) “Antifatigue Functions and Mechanisms of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms”, BioMed Research International, 2017, pp. 1-16. doi: 10.1155/2017/9648496.
  15. Socala, K. et al. (2015) “Evaluation of Anticonvulsant, Antidepressant-, and Anxiolytic-like Effects of an Aqueous Extract from Cultured Mycelia of the Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes) in Mice”, International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 17(3), pp. 209-218. doi: 10.1615/intjmedmushrooms.v17.i3.10.
  16. Amazon Flooded With Millions Of Fake Reviews In 2019 – Reviewmeta Blog “. 2019. Reviewmeta.Com. https://reviewmeta.com/blog/amazon-flooded-with-millions-of-fake-reviews-in-2019/.
  17. Mori, Koichiro, Yutaro Obara, Mitsuru Hirota, Yoshihito Azumi, Satomi Kinugasa, Satoshi Inatomi, and Norimichi Nakahata. 2008. “Nerve Growth Factor-Inducing Activity Of Hericium Erinaceus In 1321N1 Human Astrocytoma Cells”. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 31 (9): 1727-1732. doi:10.1248/bpb.31.1727.
  18. Yao, Wei, Ji-chun Zhang, Chao Dong, Cun Zhuang, Susumu Hirota, Kazutoyo Inanaga, and Kenji Hashimoto. 2015. “Effects Of Amycenone On Serum Levels Of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Α, Interleukin-10, And Depression-Like Behavior In Mice After Lipopolysaccharide Administration”. Pharmacology Biochemistry And Behavior 136: 7-12. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2015.06.012.
  19. Chiu, Chun-Hung, Charng-Cherng Chyau, Chin-Chu Chen, Li-Ya Lee, Wan-Ping Chen, Jia-Ling Liu, Wen-Hsin Lin, and Mei-Chin Mong. 2018. “Erinacine A-Enriched Hericium Erinaceus Mycelium Produces Antidepressant-Like Effects Through Modulating BDNF/PI3K/Akt/GSK-3Β Signaling In Mice”. International Journal Of Molecular Sciences 19 (2): 341. doi:10.3390/ijms19020341.
  20. Sheng, Xiaotong, Jingmin Yan, Yue Meng, Yuying Kang, Zhen Han, Guihua Tai, Yifa Zhou, and Hairong Cheng. 2017. “Immunomodulatory Effects Of Hericium Erinaceus Derived Polysaccharides Are Mediated By Intestinal Immunology”. Food & Function 8 (3): 1020-1027. doi:10.1039/c7fo00071e.
  21. Diling, Chen, Zheng Chaoqun, Yang Jian, Li Jian, Su Jiyan, Xie Yizhen, and Lai Guoxiao. 2017. “Immunomodulatory Activities Of A Fungal Protein Extracted From Hericium Erinaceus Through Regulating The Gut Microbiota”. Frontiers In Immunology 8. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2017.00666.
  22. Kim, Yeon-Ran. 2005. “Immunomodulatory Activity Of The Water Extract From Medicinal Mushroominonotus Obliquus”. Mycobiology 33 (3): 158. doi:10.4489/myco.2005.33.3.158.
  23. “Zinc As A Gatekeeper Of Immune Function”. 2017. Nutrients 9 (12): 1286. doi:10.3390/nu9121286.
  24. M. Saljoughian, California. 2009. “Adaptogenic Or Medicinal Mushrooms”. Uspharmacist.Com. https://www.uspharmacist.com/article/adaptogenic-or-medicinal-mushrooms.
  25. Geng, Ping, Ka-Chai Siu, Zhaomei Wang, and Jian-Yong Wu. 2017. “Antifatigue Functions And Mechanisms Of Edible And Medicinal Mushrooms”. Biomed Research International 2017: 1-16. doi:10.1155/2017/9648496.
  26. “Maitake”. 2020. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. https://www.mskcc.org/cancer-care/integrative-medicine/herbs/maitake#references-2.
  27. Vaclav Vetvicka, Jana Vetvickova. 2014. “Immune-Enhancing Effects Of Maitake (Grifola Frondosa) And Shiitake (Lentinula Edodes) Extracts”. Annals Of Translational Medicine 2 (2). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4202470/.
  28. Zhao, Hong, Qingyuan Zhang, Ling Zhao, Xu Huang, Jincai Wang, and Xinmei Kang. 2012. “Spore Powder Ofganoderma Lucidumimproves Cancer-Related Fatigue In Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Endocrine Therapy: A Pilot Clinical Trial”. Evidence-Based Complementary And Alternative Medicine 2012: 1-8. doi:10.1155/2012/809614.
  29. Tang, Wenbo, Yihuai Gao, Guoliang Chen, He Gao, Xihu Dai, Jinxian Ye, Eli Chan, Min Huang, and Shufeng Zhou. 2005. “A Randomized, Double-Blind And Placebo-Controlled Study Of Aganoderma Lucidumpolysaccharide Extract In Neurasthenia”. Journal Of Medicinal Food 8 (1): 53-58. doi:10.1089/jmf.2005.8.53.
  30. Guo, Li-mei, Xin-zhi Sun, Ying Liao, and Wei Li. 2017. “Neuroprotective Effects Of Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharides Against Oxidative Stress-Induced Neuronal Apoptosis”. Neural Regeneration Research 12 (6): 953. doi:10.4103/1673-5374.208590.
  31. Lin, Zhi-Bin. 2005. “Cellular And Molecular Mechanisms Of Immuno-Modulation By Ganoderma Lucidum”. Journal Of Pharmacological Sciences 99 (2): 144-153. doi:10.1254/jphs.crj05008x.
  32. Gao, Yihuai, Shufeng Zhou, Wenqi Jiang, Min Huang, and Xihu Dai. 2003. “Effects Of Ganopoly®(Aganoderma Lucidumpolysaccharide Extract) On The Immune Functions In Advanced‐Stage Cancer Patients”. Immunological Investigations 32 (3): 201-215. doi:10.1081/imm-120022979.
  33. Mandal, Arundhati, and Chandra Viswanathan. 2015. “Natural Killer Cells: In Health And Disease”. Hematology/Oncology And Stem Cell Therapy 8 (2): 47-55. doi:10.1016/j.hemonc.2014.11.006.
  34. Bito, Tomohiro, Fei Teng, Noriharu Ohishi, Shigeo Takenaka, Emi Miyamoto, Emi Sakuno, Kazuhisa Terashima, Yukinori Yabuta, and Fumio Watanabe. 2014. “Characterization Of Vitamin B12 Compounds In The Fruiting Bodies Of Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinula Edodes) And Bed Logs After Fruiting Of The Mushroom”. Mycoscience 55 (6): 462-468. doi:10.1016/j.myc.2014.01.008.
  35. Lindequist, Ulrike, Timo H. J. Niedermeyer, and Wolf-Dieter Jülich. 2005. “The Pharmacological Potential Of Mushrooms”. Evidence-Based Complementary And Alternative Medicine 2 (3): 285-299. doi:10.1093/ecam/neh107.
  36. Lee, Kuo-Hsiung, Susan L. Morris-Natschke, Xiaoming Yang, Rong Huang, Ting Zhou, Shou-Fang Wu, Qian Shi, and Hideji Itokawa. 2012. “Recent Progress Of Research On Medicinal Mushrooms, Foods, And Other Herbal Products Used In Traditional Chinese Medicine”. Journal Of Traditional And Complementary Medicine 2 (2): 1-12. doi:10.1016/s2225-4110(16)30081-5.
  37. Handayani, D., J. Chen, B. J. Meyer, and X. F. Huang. 2011. “Dietary Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinus Edodes) Prevents Fat Deposition And Lowers Triglyceride In Rats Fed A High-Fat Diet”. Journal Of Obesity 2011: 1-8. doi:10.1155/2011/258051.
  38. Dai, Xiaoshuang, Joy M. Stanilka, Cheryl A. Rowe, Elizabethe A. Esteves, Carmelo Nieves, Samuel J. Spaiser, Mary C. Christman, Bobbi Langkamp-Henken, and Susan S. Percival. 2015. “Consuminglentinula Edodes(Shiitake) Mushrooms Daily Improves Human Immunity: A Randomized Dietary Intervention In Healthy Young Adults”. Journal Of The American College Of Nutrition 34 (6): 478-487. doi:10.1080/07315724.2014.950391.
  39. Bak, Won Chull, Ji Heon Park, Young Ae Park, and Kang Hyeon Ka. 2014. “Determination Of Glucan Contents In The Fruiting Bodies And Mycelia Of Lentinula Edodes Cultivars”. Mycobiology 42 (3): 301-304. doi:10.5941/myco.2014.42.3.301.
  40. Nitschke, Jörg, Hendrik Modick, Ekkehard Busch, Reimund Wantoch von Rekowski, Hans-Josef Altenbach, and Helga Mölleken. 2011. “A New Colorimetric Method To Quantify Β-1,3-1,6-Glucans In Comparison With Total Β-1,3-Glucans In Edible Mushrooms”. Food Chemistry 127 (2): 791-796. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.12.149.
  41. Bak, Won Chull, Ji Heon Park, Young Ae Park, and Kang Hyeon Ka. 2014. “Determination Of Glucan Contents In The Fruiting Bodies And Mycelia Of Lentinula Edodes Cultivars”. Mycobiology 42 (3): 301-304. doi:10.5941/myco.2014.42.3.301.